Code of Ethics for Research
Enacted on July 01, 2007
I. General Provisions
Article 1 Objective
The objective of these provisions is to provide regulations on appointment and operation of the Research Ethics Committee of the Institute for Mediterranean Studies at Pusan University of Foreign Studies (hereinafter referred to as "the University"). This Code of Ethics for Research aims to lay the groundwork for principles and standards that researchers follow in the process of research and therefore to contribute to academic development and create a sound research climate where there is protection of intellectual property rights and respect for values of other research works and sharing of outcomes among researchers.
Article 2 Focus
Any individual who submits a writing to any of the publications issued by the Institute for Mediterranean Studies of the University, including Mediterranean Review, or those who review any of the writings are subject to these provisions.
Article 3 Scope
These provisions are applicable to any research and/or writing activity related with the Institute for Mediterranean Studies of the University.
Article 4 Guidelines
All researchers who submit a writing to Mediterranean Review shall agree to the provision of ethics in the application for submission. Anyone who does not agree thereto is not allowed for submissions.
Article 5 Definition
In this Code of Ethics for Research, the following terms have the following meanings.
Research Misconduct (hereinafter referred to as "the Misconduct") includes fabrication, falsification, plagiarism, false indication of authors, or dual submission or publication of research works in proposing or performing research, or in reporting research results.
① Fabrication is making up data or results and recording or reporting them.
② Falsification is manipulating research materials, equipment, or processes, or changing or omitting data or results such that the research is not accurately represented in the research record.
③ Plagiarism is the appropriation of another person's words, ideas or research results without acknowledgement or source indication, and passing them off as one's own. Criteria for judging plagiarism can be ambiguous, but it is a general rule to indicate the source of a quotation from another person's ideas or research results, regardless of the frequency of quotations.
④ False Indication of Authors is not granting qualifications for authorship to those who have made an academic contribution to research content or outcome for no valid reasons or granting such qualifications to those who have no contribution, under the banner of respect or gratitude. The following is also deemed to be false indication of authors: the position as the first author is given to another co-author than a qualified researcher owing to a title or position of the co-author. Co-authors or those who have made an direct or indirect contribution shall be indicated with a level of contribution in a designated way of indication.
⑤ Dual Submission or Publication of Research Works is submitting manuscripts to other journals that have already been published or being reviewed for publication. In case research results published in a journal are published as a book or part of them are included in a publication, bibliographic information thereof shall be indicated in that publication.
⑥ In case an individual, including a researcher alleged to have committed the Misconduct, obstructs an investigation of the allegation or causes harm to the complainant on purpose
⑦ In the case of a serious deviation from the limitations that academic circles generally accept
⑧ In the event that an individual asks or forces others to commit the Misconduct
⑨ In the event that an individual causes damage to a researcher or research outcome for personal matters
Article 6 The Code of Ethics of the Editorial Board
1. The editorial board and the editors are responsible for deciding whether a submitted research work is acceptable for publication and are expected to respect the author's personality as an independent scholar.
2. The editorial board shall handle fairly submitted works, regardless of age, gender and department of authors, according to the quality of works and the standards of submission.
① Generally, only the title and key words of a research work are given to the editors in the process of selecting juries for the work.
② It is a rule that the name, position and department of the authors of research are not disclosed by the editorial board to the juries.
③ The editorial board shall ensure that the juries are kept confidential especially to the authors of a submitted research work.
3. In selecting juries, the editors shall choose those with judgment and expertise relevant to the area of the submitted research.
① The editors make efforts to select those in no personal relations with authors and to have the juries make an objective evaluation.
② If there is a material difference in the evaluation of a research work between the juries, the editorial board may conduct a thorough review of the evaluation report and consult with third-party experts.
4. The editors shall not disclose to others than the juries, the information on the submitted work and authors until there is a decision on the publication thereof.
Article 7 The Code of Ethics for Juries
1. The juries shall make a sincere evaluation for a research work requested by the editorial board of a related journal, within a stipulated period of time, and report evaluation results to the board.
2. The juries shall make a fair evaluation for research works in conformity with the objective standards, regardless of his or her academic principles and personal relationships with the authors thereof.
① A jury shall not pass insufficient research works for such reasons as a personal relationship with researchers.
② A jury shall not pass or reject a research work without a thorough review thereof.
③ Sufficient evidence shall be indicated in an evaluation report in case a research work is to be rejected.
④ A jury shall not reject a research work for his or her different point of view or interpretation from the authors'.
3. The juries shall respect author's personality and independence as an expert and intellectual.
① The juries shall indicate their opinions in the evaluation report and detail the reasons for parts judged to be insufficient.
② In the evaluation report, the juries are expected to make mild and polite expressions and to avoid demeaning or insulting comments.
4. The juries shall maintain secrecy for the research work to be evaluated.
① It is not advisable for the juries to disclose a research work to third parties or consult them about the research unless experts are consulted in the process of evaluation.
② Before the journal containing the evaluated work is published, the juries are forbidden to quote the content of the work without the author's consent.
Article 8 Appointment of the Research Ethics Committee
1. The research ethics committee is not a permanent body. In case there is a violation of the research ethics, the editor-in-chief of the Institute for Mediterranean Studies shall obtain an approval of the management committee and the editorial board thereof in appointing a research ethics committee consisting of ten (10) or fewer members.
2. The research ethics committee has the discretion to investigate the complainant, respondent and relevant evidence of a research work alleged to have violated the research ethics. In case the violation thereof is found through a thorough investigation, the committee puts forward appropriate disciplinary measures for the relevant research work and researchers.
3. The Code of Ethics for Members of the Research Ethics Committee
① The committee members shall conduct a fair and strict inquiry on the research in question.
② The committee members shall respect the personality of a researcher who is alleged to have violated the research ethics.
③ The committee members shall not disclose the identity of the complainant who has made an allegation of the Misconduct.
4. Procedure for Investigation by the Research Ethics Committee
① A 'preliminary inquiry' shall be conducted through an approval of the editorial board and the chief of the Institute for Mediterranean Studies, in order to determine whether the research in question requires an official investigation.
② A research ethics committee is appointed and the committee carries out an 'investigation' to determine if the Misconduct has occurred.
③ A 'judgment' procedure is conducted through which investigation results are confirmed and notified in writing to the related complainant and respondent.
II. Verification of the Integrity of Research
Article 9 Report and Receipt of the Misconduct
1. The complainant may report an allegation of the Misconduct through any means possible: for example, orally, in writing, or by telephone, mail or e-mail. Generally, the complaint shall identify himself or herself when reporting an allegation and the identified complaint shall be protected by the Institute for Mediterranean Studies. In the event of anonymous reporting of an allegation, a detailed account and evidence of the Misconduct is required.
2. Any complaint who has known or could have known that an allegation of the Misconduct was groundless but has reported the allegation is not protected.
3. In case a submitted research work, before being published, is alleged to have violated the code of ethics, the editorial board or juries notify the respondent of the case and the code of ethics and make efforts to resolve the situation.
Article 10 Procedure and Method of Preliminary Inquiry
1. A preliminary inquiry shall commence within fifteen (15) days of the receipt of an allegation and be completed within thirty (30) days of the commencement thereof. Inquiry results require an approval of the chief of the Institute for Mediterranean Studies through the editorial board.
2. The preliminary inquiry is to examine each of the following items:
① if the violation alleged constitutes the Misconduct under Clause 1, Article 4;
② whether the allegation is found to be so clear and accurate as to warrant an investigation and the investigation, if needed, is profitable; and
③ if the date of making an allegation is within five (5) years from the initial date of the prescription period.
3. A preliminary inquiry is led by the editorial board, and relevant experts or a separated sub-committee may be appointed for the inquiry.
Article 11 Report of Results of Preliminary Inquiry
1. Results of the preliminary inquiry are notified in writing to the corresponding complainant and respondent within ten (10) days of the approval of the chief of the Institute for Mediterranean Studies, which is however not applicable to an anonymous complainant, if any.
2. The report of results of the preliminary inquiry shall include each of the following items:
① a detailed account of the allegation reported;
② an allegation of the Misconduct examined and relevant research works;
③ a decision on if the allegation warrants an investigation, and grounds for the decision; and other relevant evidence
Article 12 Procedure and Method of Investigation
1. An investigation shall commence within thirty (30) days of an approval of inquiry results by the chief of the Institute for Mediterranean Studies. During the period, a research ethics committee (hereinafter referred to as "the Ethics Committee") is appointed to conduct an investigation.
2. The investigation procedure including a judgment process shall be completed within ninety (90) days of the commencement thereof.
3. If the Ethics Committee is unable to complete the investigation within the time period provided in Clause 2, the time limit may be extended by up to thirty (30) days through an approval of the chief of the Institute for Mediterranean Studies.
Article 13 The Ethics Committee
1. An Ethics Committee consists of ten (10) or fewer members where the editors are included. The chairperson is elected by the Committee from among its members.
2. The members of the Ethics Committee do not include anyone in a conflict of interest in the corresponding investigation.
Article 14 Request of Attendance and Submission of Records
1. The Ethics Committee may ask the complainant, respondent, witnesses and/or testifiers for attendance and making a statement, and in that case, those asked shall accede to the request.
2. The Ethics Committee may request the respondent to submit relevant records.
Article 15 Protection of Rights of Complainant and Respondent, and Confidentiality
1. Direct or indirect disclosure of the complaint is not allowed in any circumstances, and the name of the complaint is not indicated in a report of investigation results for the purpose of protecting him or her unless required for certain reasons.
2. The Ethics Committee takes care not to damage the respondent's reputation and rights until an allegation of the Misconduct is verified and makes efforts to restore his or her reputation in case there is a finding that the allegation is not supported.
3. Each and every matter related with the investigation, including but not limited to reporting of an allegation, inquiry, examination, decision, and suggestion, shall be kept confidential. But, such a matter with a need for disclosure may be disclosed through an approval of the chief of the Institute for Mediterranean Studies.
Article 16 Rights for Appeal and Defensible Argument
The Ethics Committee shall ensure that the complaint and the respondent have equal opportunities for making a statement, appeal and/or defensible argument. They shall be notified previously of the related procedures.
Article 17 Submission of the Report of Investigation Results
1. The Ethics Committee prepares a report of investigation results (hereinafter referred to as "the Final Report") by referring to the appeal and/or argument made by the persons concerned and submits it to the chief of the Institute for Mediterranean Studies. 2. The final report shall include each of the following items:
① an account of the allegation reported;
② an allegation of the Misconduct examined and the relevant research work;
③ respondent's roles in the research and a decision on if the allegation is true;
④ related evidence and witnesses;
⑤ appeals and/or argument by the complaint and respondent for investigation results and results of handling the appeals and/or argument; and
⑥ the list of the members of the Ethics Committee
Article 18 Judgment
1. After obtaining the approval of the chief of the Institute for Mediterranean Studies, the Ethics Committee confirms investigation details and results in the final report and notifies the complaint and the respondent thereof.
2. The investigation details and results, if not agreed, may be put to the vote. In that case, a resolution is adopted when a majority of the incumbent members are present and more than two-thirds of the present members approve it.
III. Measures after Verification
Article 19 Measures after Finding and Disclosure of Records
1. In the event of the Misconduct, the relevant research work is excluded from the list of works of a corresponding journal, and the finding that the Misconduct has occurred may be disclosed to the public. The researcher who has submitted the relevant work cannot submit manuscripts for five (5) years from the finding.
2. The Final Report may be disclosed after the judgment, provided that such information as the names of the complaint, investigation members, witnesses, testifiers and/or those consulted may not be disclosed in case it is highly probable that the disclosure causes disadvantages to any of them.